Family, Social, Cultural, and Religious Influences on Child Health Promotion

Family, Social, Cultural, and Religious Influences on Child Health Promotion

  • Family Systems Theory
    • A change in any part of a family system affects all other parts of the family
  • Family Stress Theory
    • Stress is an inevitable part of family life and any event can be stressful on the family
  • Developmental Theory
    • Families develop and change over time in similar and consistent ways

Assumptions

Strengths

Limitations

Applications

Family Systems Theory

A change in any one part of a family system affects all other parts of the family system (circular causality).

Family systems are characterized by periods of rapid growth and change and periods of relative stability.

Both too little change and too much change are dysfunctional for the family system; therefore, a balance between morphogenesis (change) and morphostasis (no change) is necessary.

Family systems can initiate change, as well as react to it.

Applicable for family in normal everyday life, as well as for family dysfunction and pathology.

Useful for families of varying structure and various stages of life cycle.

More difficult to determine cause-and-effect relationships because of circular causality.

Mate selection, courtship processes, family communication, boundary maintenance, power and control within family, parent-child relationships, adolescent pregnancy and parenthood.

Pediatric Nursing Care

Pediatric Nursing Care

  • Family-centered care:
    • Recognize the family as a constant in the child’s life
    • Support the competence of the family
    • Address the needs of all family members
    • Enable and empower families
  • Key elements of Family-Centered Care
    • Incorporating into policy and practice the recognition that the family is the constant in a child’s life, whereas the service systems and support personnel within those systems fluctuate
    • Facilitating family-professional collaboration at all levels of hospital, home, and community care:
      • Care of an individual child
      • Program development, implementation, and evaluation
      • Policy formation
    • Exchanging complete and unbiased information between family members and professionals in a supportive manner at all times
    • Incorporating into policy and practice the recognition and honoring of cultural diversity, strengths, and individuality within and across all families, including ethnic, racial, spiritual, social, economic, educational, and geographic diversity
    • Recognizing and respecting different methods of coping and implementing comprehensive policies and programs that provide developmental, educational, emotional, environmental, and financial support to meet the diverse needs of families
    • Encouraging and facilitating family-to-family support and networking
    • Ensuring that home, hospital, and community service and support systems for children needing specialized health and developmental care and their families are flexible, accessible, and comprehensive in responding to diverse family-identified needs
    • Appreciating families as families and children as children, recognizing that they possess a wide range of strengths, concerns, emotions, and aspirations beyond their need for specialized health and developmental services and support
  • Empowerment describes the interaction of professionals with families in such a way that families maintain or acquire a sense of control over their family lives and acknowledge positive changes that result from helping behaviors that foster their own strengths, abilities, and actions.

Infant Mortality & Child Mortality

Infant Mortality

  • Number of deaths per 1000 live births during first of life
    • 5.9 per 1000 in the U.S.
  • Leading causes of death in the U.S.:
  • Birth defects
  • Preterm birth & low birth weight
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Maternal pregnancy complications
  • Texas has a rate of 5.9 per 1000

Child Mortality

  • Death rates for children older than 1 year of age have always been lower than those for infants.
  • A sharp rise occurs during later adolescence, primarily from injuries, homicide, and suicide
  • Five leading causes of Death in Children in the United States: Selected Age intervals by Rate per 100,000 population

Rank

1-4 years of age

5-9 years of age

10-14 years of age

15-19 years of age

Causes

Rate

Causes

Rate

Causes

Rate

Causes

Rate

1

Injuries

7.6

Injuries

3.6

Injuries

3.6

Injuries

17.7

2

Congenital anomalies

2.5

Cancer

2.1

Suicide

2.1

Suicide

8.7

3

Homicide

2.3

Congenital anomalies

0.9

Cancer

2.0

Homicide

6.7

4

Cancer

2.0

Homicide

0.6

Congenital anomalies

0.8

Cancer

2.9

5

Heart disease

0.9

Heart disease

0.3

Homicide

0.8

Heart disease

1.4

Childhood Morbidity

  • Illnesses severe enough to limit activity or require medical attention
    • Most common childhood illness is the cold
    • Respiratory illness accounts for 50% of all acute conditions
    • 11% are caused by infections and parasitic disease
    • 15% are caused by injuries