Causes of secondary hypertension

Causes of secondary hypertension

  • Cirrhosis
  • Coarctation or congenital narrowing of the aorta
  • Drug-related: estrogen replacement therapy, oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors), sympathetic stimulants (e.g., cocaine, monoamine oxidase)
  • Endocrine disorders (e.g., pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome,thyroid disease)
  • Neurologic disorders (e.g., brain tumors, quadriplegia, traumatic brain injury)
  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • Renal disease (e.g., renal artery stenosis, glomerulonephritis)
  • Sleep apnea

Etiology of hypertension

  • Primary hypertension
    • Also called essential or idiopathic hypertension
    • Elevated BP without an identified cause
    • 90% to 95% of all cases
    • Exact cause unknown but several contributing factors
  • Secondary hypertension
    • Elevated BP with a specific cause
    • 5% to 10% of adult cases
    • Clinical findings relate to underlying cause
    • Treatment aimed at removing or treating cause