Classification of hypertension

  • Sympathetic nervous systems (SNS)
    • Activation increases HR and cardiac contractility
    • Vasoconstriction and renin release
    • Increases CO and SVR
  • Baroreceptors
    • Sensitive to stretching
    • Send impulses to sympathetic vasomotor center
  • Vascular endothelium
    • Essential to regulation of vasodilating and vasoconstricting substances
  • Renal system
    • Control sodium excretion and ECF volume
    • RAAS system
    • Prostaglandins
  • Endocrine system
    • Epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medulla
    • Aldosterone from adrenal cortex
    • ADH from posterior pituitary

Classification of hypertension

  • Normal
    • SBP (mmHg) <120
    • DBP (mmHg) <80
  • Prehypertension
    • SBP (mmHg) 120-139
    • DBP (mmHg) 80-89
  • Hypertension, stage 1
    • SBP (mmHg) 140-159 
    • DBP (mmHg) 90-99
  • Hypertension, stage 2
    • SBP (mmHg)  ≥160
    • DBP (mmHg) ≥100