Common Causes of Acute Kidney Injury

 

Common Causes of Acute Kidney Injury

Prerenal

Intrarenal

Postrenal

Hypovolemia

Nephrotoxic Injury

  • Dehydration
  • Hemorrhage
  • GI losses (diarrhea, vomiting)
  • Excessive diuresis
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Burns
  • Drugs: aminoglycosides (gentamicin, amikacin), amphotericin B
  • Contrast media
  • Hemolytic blood transfusion reaction
  • Severe crush injury
  • Chemical exposure: ethylene glycol, lead, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Bladder cancer
  • Calculi formation
  • Neuromuscular disorders
  • Prostate cancer
  • Spinal cord disease
  • Strictures
  • Trauma (back, pelvis, perineum)

Decreased Cardiac Output

Interstitial Nephritis

  • Cardiac dysrhythmias
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Heart failure
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Allergies: antibiotics (sulfonamides, rifampin), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ACE inhibitors
  • Infections: bacterial (acute pyelonephritis), viral (CMV), fungal (candidiasis)

Decreased Peripheral Vascular Resistance

Other Causes

  • Anaphylaxis
  • Neurologic injury
  • Septic shock
  • Prolonged prerenal ischemia
  • Acute glomerulonephritis
  • Thrombotic disorders
  • Toxemia of pregnancy
  • Malignant hypertension
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

Decreased Renovascular Blood Flow

  • Bilateral renal vein thrombosis
  • Embolism
  • Hepatorenal syndrome
  • Renal artery thrombosis