Cultural and ethnic health disparities : obesity

  • Cultural and ethnic health disparities
    • African Americans and Hispanics have a higher prevalence of obesity than whites.
    • Among women, African Americans have the highest prevalence of being overweight or obese, and 15% have extreme obesity.
    • Among men, Hispanics have the highest prevalence of being overweight or obese.
    • African American and Hispanic women with low incomes have the greatest likelihood of being overweight when compared with other socioeconomic groups.
    • Native Americans have a higher prevalence of being overweight than the general population.
    • Among Native Americans ages 45 to 74, more than 30% of women are overweight and more than 40% are obese.
    • Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of being overweight and obese compared with the general population
  • Health risks associated with obesity
    • Psychosocial
      • Depression
      • Low self-esteem
      • Risk of suicide
      • Discrimination
      • Social isolation
    • Endocrine/Metabolic
      • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
      • Metabolic syndrome
      • Polycystic ovary syndrome
    • Respiratory
      • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
      • Sleep apnea
      • Asthma
      • Pulmonary hypertension
      • Exercise intolerance
    • Reproductive (Women)
      • Menstrual irregularities
      • Infertility
      • Gestational diabetes
    • Reproductive (Men)
      • Hypogonadism
      • Gynecomastia
      • Sexual dysfunction
    • Musculoskeletal
      • Osteoarthritis
      • Impaired mobility and flexibility
      • Gout
      • Lumbar disk disease
      • Chronic low back pain
    • Cardiovascular
      • Hyperlipidemia
      • Sudden cardiac death
      • Right-sided heart failure
      • Left ventricular hypertrophy
      • Coronary artery disease
      • Deep venous thrombosis
      • Atrial fibrillation
      • Hypertension
      • Cardiomyopathy
      • Venous stasis
      • Varicose veins
    • Gastrointestinal
      • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
      • Gallstones
      • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    • Genitourinary
      • Kidney cancer
      • Chronic kidney disease
      • Stress incontinence
    • Cancer
      • Esophagus, pancreas, thyroid, colorectal, and gallbladder cancer (both genders)
      • Endometrial, breast, and ovarian cancer (women)
  • Physiological regulatory mechanism
    • Two major consequences of obesity are due to
      • Increase in fat mass
      • Production of adipokines
        • Contribute to insulin resistance and atherosclerosis
        • Disrupt immune factors and predispose to certain cancers
  • Environmental factors
    • Greater access to food with poor nutritional quality
      • Common to underestimate food and caloric intake
    • Lack of physical exercise
    • Low socioeconomic status
  • Psychosocial factors
    • People use food for many reasons
      • Associations begin in childhood
      • Sense of satiety can be altered
      • Mindless eating
      • Eating is social and often associated with pleasure and fun