Each degree of fever increases the basal metabolism 10%, with a correspondingly increased fluid requirement.
Thermoregulation- one of the most important adaptation response of infants during the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life
Sleep and rest
Protective function- it allows for repair and recovery of tissue and their activity
Single most important influence on growth
Appetites fluctuate related to growth periods
Children’s appetites fluctuate in response to these variations until the turbulent growth spurt of adolescence, when adequate nutrition is extremely important but may be subjected to numerous emotional influences.
The manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting characteristic of an individual
Attributes of temperament
Activity: Level of physical motion during activity, such as sleep, eating, play, dressing, and bathing
Rhythmicity: Regularity in the timing of physiologic functions, such as hunger, sleep, and elimination
Approach-withdrawal: Nature of initial responses to a new stimulus, such as people, situations, places, foods, toys, and procedures (Approach responses are positive and are displayed by activity or expression; withdrawal responses are negative expressions or behaviors.)
Adaptability: Ease or difficulty with which the child adapts or adjusts to new or altered situations
Threshold of responsiveness (sensory threshold): Amount of stimulation, such as sounds or light, required to evoke a response in the child
Intensity of reaction: Energy level of the child’s reactions regardless of quality or direction
Mood: Amount of pleasant, happy, friendly behavior compared with unpleasant, unhappy, crying, unfriendly behavior exhibited by the child in various situations
Distractibility: Ease with which a child’s attention or direction of behavior can be diverted by external stimuli
Attention span and persistence: Length of time a child pursues a given activity (attention) and the continuation of an activity despite obstacles (persistence)
The easy child:
Easygoing children are even tempered, are regular and predictable in their habits, and have a positive approach to new stimuli.
They are open and adaptable to change and display a mild to moderately intense mood that is typically positive.
Approximately 40% of children fall into this category.
The difficult child:
Difficult children are highly active, irritable, and irregular in their habits.
Negative withdrawal responses are typical, and they require a more structured environment.
These children adapt slowly to new routines, people, and situations.
Mood expressions are usually intense and primarily negative.
They exhibit frequent periods of crying, and frustration often produces violent tantrums.
This group represents about 10% of children.
The slow-to-warm-up child:
Slow-to-warm-up children typically react negatively and with mild intensity to new stimuli and, unless pressured, adapt slowly with repeated contact.
They respond with only mild but passive resistance to novelty or changes in routine.
They are inactive and moody but show only moderate irregularity in functions.
Fifteen percent of children demonstrate this temperament pattern.