Development of organ systems

    • Development of organ systems
  • Physical Changes
    • Metabolism
      • Basal metabolic rate- highest in newborns
        • Each degree of fever increases the basal metabolism 10%, with a correspondingly increased fluid requirement.
    • Temperature
      • Thermoregulation- one of the most important adaptation response of infants during the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life
    • Sleep and rest
      • Protective function- it allows for repair and recovery of tissue and their activity
  • Nutrition
    • Single most important influence on growth
    • Appetites fluctuate related to growth periods
      • Children’s appetites fluctuate in response to these variations until the turbulent growth spurt of adolescence, when adequate nutrition is extremely important but may be subjected to numerous emotional influences.
  • Temperament
    • The manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting characteristic of an individual
      • Attributes of temperament
        • Activity: Level of physical motion during activity, such as sleep, eating, play, dressing, and bathing
        • Rhythmicity: Regularity in the timing of physiologic functions, such as hunger, sleep, and elimination
        • Approach-withdrawal: Nature of initial responses to a new stimulus, such as people, situations, places, foods, toys, and procedures (Approach responses are positive and are displayed by activity or expression; withdrawal responses are negative expressions or behaviors.)
        • Adaptability: Ease or difficulty with which the child adapts or adjusts to new or altered situations
        • Threshold of responsiveness (sensory threshold): Amount of stimulation, such as sounds or light, required to evoke a response in the child
        • Intensity of reaction: Energy level of the child’s reactions regardless of quality or direction
        • Mood: Amount of pleasant, happy, friendly behavior compared with unpleasant, unhappy, crying, unfriendly behavior exhibited by the child in various situations
        • Distractibility: Ease with which a child’s attention or direction of behavior can be diverted by external stimuli
        • Attention span and persistence: Length of time a child pursues a given activity (attention) and the continuation of an activity despite obstacles (persistence)
      • The easy child: 
        • Easygoing children are even tempered, are regular and predictable in their habits, and have a positive approach to new stimuli. 
        • They are open and adaptable to change and display a mild to moderately intense mood that is typically positive. 
        • Approximately 40% of children fall into this category.
      • The difficult child: 
        • Difficult children are highly active, irritable, and irregular in their habits. 
        • Negative withdrawal responses are typical, and they require a more structured environment. 
        • These children adapt slowly to new routines, people, and situations. 
        • Mood expressions are usually intense and primarily negative. 
        • They exhibit frequent periods of crying, and frustration often produces violent tantrums. 
        • This group represents about 10% of children.
      • The slow-to-warm-up child: 
        • Slow-to-warm-up children typically react negatively and with mild intensity to new stimuli and, unless pressured, adapt slowly with repeated contact. 
        • They respond with only mild but passive resistance to novelty or changes in routine. 
        • They are inactive and moody but show only moderate irregularity in functions. 
        • Fifteen percent of children demonstrate this temperament pattern.