Development of Personality and Mental function : Fowler

    • Fowler
      • Identified seven stages in the development of faith; Four closely associated with and parallel with cognitive and psychosocial development
        • Pre-stage: Undifferentiated faith (Infant)
          • Trust, hope, and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats of abandonment
        • Stage 1: Intuitive-projective faith (Toddler-preschooler)
          • Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality
          • Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts
        • Stage 2: Mythical-literal faith (School-aged child)
          • Accepts existence of a deity
          • Religious and moral beliefs are symbolized by stories
          • Appreciates others’ viewpoints
          • Accepts concepts of reciprocal fairness
        • Stage 3: Synthetic-conventional faith (Adolescent)
          • Questions values and religious belief to form own identity
        • Stage 4: Individuate-reflective faith (Late adolescent and young adult)
          • Assumes responsibility for own attitudes and beliefs
        • Stage 5: Conjunctive faith (Adult)
          • Integrates other perspectives about faith into own definition of truth
        • Stage 6: Universalizing faith (Adult)
          • Makes concepts of love and justice tangible

Psychosexual (Freud)

Psychosocial (Erikson)

Cognitive (Piaget)

Moral Judgment (Kohlberg)


Trust vs. mistrust

Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years of age)


Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Preoperational thought, preconceptual phase (transductive reasoning [e.g., specific to specific]) (2 to 4 years of age)

Preconventional (premoral) level

Punishment and obedience orientation


Initiative vs. guilt

Preoperational thought, intuitive phase (transductive reasoning) (4 to 7 years of age)

Preconventional (premoral) level

Naïve instrumental orientation


Industry vs. inferiority

Concrete operations (inductive reasoning and beginning logic) (7 to 11 years of age)

Conventional level

Good-boy, nice-girl orientation

Law-and-order orientation


Identity vs. role confusion

Formal operations (deductive and abstract reasoning) (11 to 15 years of age)

Postconventional or principled level

Social-contract orientation