Development of Personality and Mental function : Kohlberg

    • Kohlberg
      • Believed children acquire moral reasoning in developmental sequence
        • Preconventional level
          • Children determine the goodness or badness of an action in terms of its consequences. 
          • They avoid punishment and obey without question those who have the power to determine and enforce the rules and labels. 
          • They have no concept of the basic moral order that supports these consequences.
            • Individual interest:
              • Behavior driven by self-interest and rewards
        • Conventional level
          • Concerned with conformity and loyalty
            • Interpersonal:
              • Behavior driven by social approval
          • One earns approval by being “nice.” 
            • Obeying the rules
            • Doing one’s duty
            • Showing respect for authority
            • Maintaining the social order are the correct behaviors.
        • Postconventional, autonomous, or principled level
          • Reached the cognitive stage of formal operations
            • Correct behavior tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been examined and agreed on by the entire society
            • Social contract
              • Behavior driven by balance of social order and individual rights
            • Universal ethics
              • Behavior driven by internal moral principles