Development of Personality and Mental function : Piaget

    • Piaget
      • Focuses on cognitive development; Theorist believed intelligence enables individuals to make adaptations to the environment
        • Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)
          • The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage
            • They develop a sense of cause and effect as they direct behavior toward objects. 
            • Problem solving is primarily by trial and error.
            • They become aware that objects have permanence
              • That an object exists even though it is no longer visible
        • Preoperational (2 to 7 years)
          • The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action.
            • The predominant characteristic of the preoperational stage of intellectual development is egocentrism, which in this sense does not mean selfishness or self-centeredness but the inability to put oneself in the place of another.
            • In the latter stage of this period, their reasoning is intuitive (e.g., the stars have to go to bed just as they do), and they are only beginning to deal with problems of weight, length, size, and time. 
            • Reasoning is also transductive; 
              • Because two events occur together, they cause each other, or knowledge of one characteristic is transferred to another (e.g., all women with big bellies have babies).
        • Concrete operations (7 to 11 years)
          • The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets
            • They do not have the capacity to deal inabstraction; they solve problems in a concrete, systematic fashion based on what they can perceive. 
            • Reasoning is inductive. 
            • Through progressive changes in thought processes and relationships with others, thought becomes less self-centered. They can consider points of view other than their own. Thinking has become socialized.
        • Formal operations (11 to 15 years)
          • The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways
            • They can make hypotheses and test them; they can consider abstract, theoretic, and philosophic matters