Development of Self-Concept

    • Development of Self-Concept
      • Self-concept- how an individual describe himself/herself.
        • Toddlers
          • They progressively see themselves as separate from their parents and increase their explorations away from them
        • Preschoolers
          • Preschoolers feel good about themselves with regard to mastering skills that allow independence (dressing, feeding).
          • During stress, insecurity, or illness, preschoolers can regress to previous immature behaviors or develop habits (nose picking, bed-wetting, thumb sucking)
        • School-age
          • Develop awareness of themselves in relation to others, as well as an understanding of personal values, abilities, and physical characteristics
          • Confidence is gained through establishing a positive self-concept, which leads to feelings of worthiness and the ability to provide significant contributions
          • Parents continue to influence the school-age child’s self-ideas, but by middle childhood the opinion of peers and teachers become more valuable
        • Adolescence
          • View themselves in relation to similarities with peers during early adolescence
          • View themselves according to their unique characteristics as the adolescents years progress
      • Body Image- a vital component of self-concept and refers to subjective concepts and attitudes the individual has towards self
        • Infant
          • Discover that mouths are pleasures producers
          • Hands and feet are seen as objects of play
          • Infants discover that smiling causes others to react
        • Toddler
          • Appreciate the usefulness of various body parts 
          • Develop gender identity by 3 years of age
        • Preschoolers
          • Preschoolers begin to recognize differences in appearances, and identity what is considered acceptable and unacceptable
          • By 5 years, preschoolers begin comparing themselves with peers
          • Poor understanding of anatomy makes intrusive experiences (injections or cuts), frightening to preschoolers
            • Preschoolers believe it is important to use bandage after an injury
        • School-age
          • Solidification of body image occurs
          • Curiosity about sexuality should be addressed with education regarding sexual development and the reproductive process
          • They are more modest than preschoolers and place more emphasis on privacy issues
        • Adolescence
          • Base their own normality on comparisons with peers
          • The image established during adolescence is retained throughout life 
      • Self Esteem- the value that an individual place on oneself
        • Self-esteem changes with development
        • Toddlers
          • Highly egocentric toddlers are unaware of any difference between competence and social approval
        • Preschool and Early school-age
          • Increasingly aware of the discrepancy between their competencies and the abilities of more advanced children
          • Being accepted by adults and peers outside the family group becomes more important to them
          • Positive feedback enhances their self-esteem; they are vulnerable to feelings of worthlessness and are anxious about failure