Fractures

Fractures

  • Disruption or break in continuity of structure of bone
  • Majority of fractures from traumatic injuries
  • Some fractures secondary to disease process
    • Cancer or osteoporosis

Classifications

  • Classification according to external environment
    • Open fracture
      • The skin is broken and bone exposed, causing soft tissue injury
    • Closed fracture
      • The skin remains intact
  • Fractures can be classified as
    • Complete
      • if the break goes completely through the bone
    • Incomplete
      • Fracture occurs partly across a bone shaft but the bone is still intact.
      • An incomplete fracture is often the result of bending or crushing forces applied to a bone.
  • Based on direction of fracture line
    • Linear
    • Oblique
      • The line of the fracture extends across and down the bone
    • Transverse
      • The line of the fracture extends across the bone shaft at a right angle to the longitudinal axis
    • Longitudinal
    • Spiral
      • The line of the fracture extends in a spiral direction along the bone shaft.
  • Displaced or nondisplaced
    • Displaced: two ends separated from one another
      • Often comminuted or oblique
    • Nondisplaced: periosteum is intact and bone is aligned.
      • Usually transverse, spiral , or greenstick