Functions of play

      • Functions of play
        • Sensorimotor development
          • Predominant form of play in infancy.
          • Active play is essential for muscle development and serves a useful purpose as a release for surplus energy.
          • Children explore the nature of the physical world. Infants gain impressions of themselves and their world through tactile, auditory, visual, and kinesthetic stimulation.
          • Toddlers and preschoolers revel in body movement and exploration of objects in space
          • With increasing maturity, sensorimotor play becomes more differentiated and involved. 
            • Young children run for the sheer joy of body movement, older children incorporate or modify the motions into increasingly complex and coordinated activities, such as races, games, roller skating, and bicycle riding.
        • Intellectual development
          • Through exploration and manipulation, children learn colors, shapes, sizes, textures, and the significance of objects.
          • They learn the significance of numbers and how to use them; they learn to associate words with objects; and they develop an understanding of abstract concepts and spatial relationships, such as up, down, under, and over
            • Activities such as puzzles and games help them develop problem-solving skills.
          • Play provides a means to practice and expand language skills. 
          • Through play, children continually rehearse past experiences to assimilate them into new perceptions and relationships. 
          • Play helps children comprehend the world in which they live and distinguish between fantasy and reality.
        • Socialization
          • Their initial social contact is with the mothering person, but through play with other children, they learn to establish social relationships and solve the problems associated with these relationships.
          • They learn to give and take, which is more readily learned from critical peers than from more tolerant adults. 
          • They learn the sex role that society expects them to fulfill, as well as approved patterns of behavior and deportment.
          • Children learn right from wrong, the standards of the society, and to assume responsibility for their actions.
        • Creativity
          • Children can experiment and try out their ideas in play through every medium at their disposal, including raw materials, fantasy, and exploration
          • Creativity is stifled by pressure toward conformity; therefore, striving for peer approval may inhibit creative endeavors in school-age or adolescent children.
          • Creativity
          • is primarily a product of solitary activity; yet creative thinking is
          • often enhanced in group settings were listening to others’ ideas
          • stimulates further exploration of one’s own ideas.
        • Self-awareness
          • Beginning with active explorations of their bodies and awareness of themselves as separate from their mothers, the process of developing a self-identity is facilitated through play activities.
          • Children learn who they are and their place in the world. 
          • They become increasingly able to regulate their own behavior, to learn what their abilities are, and to compare their abilities with those of others.
          • They learn the sex role that society expects them to fulfill, as well as approved patterns of behavior and deportment.
        • Therapeutic value
          • Children can express emotions and release unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable fashion.
          • Children are able to experiment and test fearful situations and can assume and vicariously master the roles and positions that they are unable to perform in the world of reality.
          • Through play, children are able to communicate to the alert observer the needs, fears, and desires that they are unable to express with their limited language skills
        • Morality
          • Although children learn at home and at school those behaviors considered right and wrong in the culture, the interaction with peers during play contributes significantly to their moral training.
          • Children soon learn that their peers are less tolerant of violations than are adults and that to maintain a place in the play group, they must conform to the standards of the group