This is defined as disability that may range in severity from slight to profound hearing loss.
Malformations of the head or neck
Low birth weight
Ototoxic drugs, O2 administration
Chronic ear infections
Conductive hearing loss: Middle ear
Sensorineural hearing loss: Damage to inner ear or auditory nerve
The most common causes are congenital defects of inner ear structures or consequences of acquired conditions, such as kernicterus, infection, administration of ototoxic drugs, or exposure to excessive noise
This results in distortion of sound and problems in discrimination.
Although the child hears some of everything going on around him or her, the sounds are distorted, severely affecting discrimination and comprehension
Mixed conductive-sensorineural loss: Interference with transmission of sound
It frequently results from recurrent otitis media and its complications
Central auditory interception
The defect involves the reception of auditory stimuli along the central pathways and the expression of the message into meaningful communication.
Aphasia, the inability to express ideas in any form, either written or verbal; agnosia, the inability to interpret sound correctly
Dysacusis, difficulty in processing details or discriminating among sounds.
No organic lesion exists to explain a central auditory loss.
Hysteria (an unconscious withdrawal from hearing to block remembrance of a traumatic event)
Conductive hearing loss
Many conductive hearing defects respond to medical or surgical treatment, such as antibiotic therapy for acute otitis media or insertion of tympanostomy tubes for chronic otitis media.
The nurse should be familiar with the types, basic care, and handling of hearing aids, especially when the child is hospitalized
Types of aids include those worn in or behind the ear, models incorporated into an eyeglass frame, and types worn on the body with a wire connection to the ear
One of the most common problems with hearing aid is acoustic feedback
Annoying whistling sound usually caused by improper fit of the ear mold.
As a nurse
Stress to parents the importance of storing batteries for hearing aids in a safe location out of reach of children and teaching children not to remove the battery from the hearing aid (or supervising young children when they do so).