Link among salt intake, blood pressure, and changes in the heart

Link among salt intake, blood pressure, and changes in the heart

  • High dietary salt intake
    • Ventricular hypertrophy
      • BP (afterload)
      • Intravascular volume (preload)
      • Direct effects on protein synthesis of myocardial cells
    • Ventricular fibrosis
      • Increased aldosterone synthesis in myocardium
      • Increased angiotensin receptors in myocardial cells
        • Increased concentration of TGF-β1

Clinical manifestation

  • “Silent killer”
  • Symptoms of severe hypertension
    • Fatigue
    • Dizziness
    • Palpitations
    • Angina
    • Dyspnea

Complications

  • Target organ diseases occur most frequently in
    • Heart
      • Hypertensive heart disease
        • Coronary Artery disease
          • Hypertension disrupts the coronary artery endothelium
          • This results in a stiff arterial wall with a narrowed lumen, and accounts for a high rate of CAD, angina, and MI.
        • Left ventricular hypertrophy
          • Increased contractility increases myocardial work and O2 demand
        • Heart failure
          • Occurs when the heart’s compensatory mechanisms are overwhelmed and the heart can no longer pump enough blood to meet the body’s demands
    • Brain