• Manifestations

Hypernatremia with Decreased ECF Volume

Hyponatremia with Decreased ECF Volume

  • Restlessness, agitation, lethargy, seizures, coma
  • Irritability, apprehension, confusion, dizziness, personality changes, tremors, seizures, coma
  • Intense thirst, dry swollen tongue, sticky mucous membranes
  • Dry mucous membranes
  • Postural hypotension, decrease CVP, weight loss, increased pulse
  • Postural hypotension, decrease CVP, decrease jugular venous filling, increase pulse, thready pulse
  • Weakness, muscle cramps
  • Cold and clammy skin

Hypernatremia with Normal or Increased ECF Volume

Hyponatremia with Normal or Increased ECF Volume

  • Restlessness, agitation, twitching, seizures, coma
  • Headache, apathy, confusion, muscle spasms, seizures, coma
  • Intense thirst, flushed skin
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps
  • Weight gain, peripheral and pulmonary edema, increased BP, increased CVP
  • Weight gain, increased BP, increased CVP