Nursing Roles : Pain Assessment

Nursing Roles

  • Assess pain and communicate with other health care providers
  • Ensure initiation of adequate pain relief measures
  • Evaluate effectiveness of interventions
  • Advocate for those in pain

 

Pain Assessment

  • Elements (multidimensional)
    • Direct interview
    • Observation
    • Diagnostic studies
    • Physical examination
  • Characteristics
  • Onset
  • Pattern
  • Duration
  • Location
  • Associated symptoms
  • Intensity
  • Factors increasing or relieving pain
  • Quality

 

  • Intensity of pain
    • Reliable measure for determining treatment
    • Rated using scales 
    • 0 to 10
    • Use observational skills for nonverbal patients
  • Quality
    • Pain quality
      • Nature or characteristics
        • Sharp, aching, burning, numbing, stabbing, electric shock-like, throbbing
  • Associated symptoms
    • Can worsen pain
      • Anxiety
      • Fatigue
      • Depression

Pain Treatment Principles

  1. Follow principles of assessment
  2. Use a holistic approach to pain management
  3. Every patient deserves adequate pain management
  4. Treatment based on patient’s goals
  5. Use drug and nondrug therapies
  6. Address pain using an inter-professional approach
  7. Prevent and/or manage medication side effects
  8. Incorporate patient and caregiver teaching throughout assessment and treatment