Psychosocial Development

    • Psychosocial Development
      • Erikson: Trust vs Mistrust (Birth to 1 year)
        • Trust is developed to their self, others, and the world 
        • Infants needs need to be met (feeding, comfort, stimulation, caring) for the infant to gain trust
        • If the infants needs are not met it will lead to mistrust
        • Trust acquired in this stage of infancy is the foundation for all succeeding phases
    • Cognitive Development
      • Piaget: Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 24 months)
        • Separation: infants learn to separate themselves from other objects in the environment. 
        • Object Permanence: learn that objects that leave the visual field still exist (9-10 months of age) 
        • Use of symbols: think of an object or situation without experiencing it
    • Social development
      • Social development is initially influenced by infants’ reflexive behaviors and includes attachment, separation, recognition/anxiety, and stranger fear
      • Attached is seen when infants begin to bond with their parents. 
        • This development is seen within the first month, but it actually begins before birth. 
        • The process is enhanced when infants and parents are in good health, have positive feeding experiences, and receive adequate rest
      • Separation-individuation occurs during the first year of life as infants first distinguish themselves and their primary caregiver as separate individuals at the same time that object permanence is developing
      • Separation anxiety begins around 4 to 8 months of age 
        • Infants will protest when separated from parents, which can cause considerable anxiety for parent.
        • By 11 to 12 month, infants are able to anticipate the mother’s imminent departure by watching the behavior 
      • Stranger fear becomes evident between 6 and 8 months of age, when infants have the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar people
      • Reactive attachment disorder results from maladaptive or absent attachment between the infant and primary caregiver and continues through childhood and adulthood
    • Attachment
      • Attachment: 6 months, the infant shows preference for the mother 
      • 1 months after showing attachment to the mother the infant shows attachment to the other family members 
        • Differential crying, smiling, and vocalization 
        • Visual-motor orientation (looking more at the mother) 
        • Crying when the mother leaves the room 
        • Approaching through locomotion 
        • Clinging (especially in the present of a stranger) 
        • Exploring away from the mother while using her as a secure base 
      • Severe attachment disorders are psychologic and developmental problems that develop from absent attachment
      • Separation anxiety: 4 to 8 months of age: infants protest when they are put in their crib and after their mother leaves the room. If they realize the mothers absence they protest 
      • 11 to 12 months of age, able to notice immanent departure by watching the mother’s behaviors 
      • Stranger fear: 6 and 8 months of age: fear of strangers and stranger anxiety become more prominent – related to infants ability to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar person
    • Language development
      • First verbal communication: crying 
      • Vocalization heard during crying eventually become syllables and words (“mama”)
      • 10-11 months ascribe meaning to words 
      • 1 year can say 3-5 words with meaning