Trust is developed to their self, others, and the world
Infants needs need to be met (feeding, comfort, stimulation, caring) for the infant to gain trust
If the infants needs are not met it will lead to mistrust
Trust acquired in this stage of infancy is the foundation for all succeeding phases
Piaget: Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 24 months)
Separation: infants learn to separate themselves from other objects in the environment.
Object Permanence: learn that objects that leave the visual field still exist (9-10 months of age)
Use of symbols: think of an object or situation without experiencing it
Social development is initially influenced by infants’ reflexive behaviors and includes attachment, separation, recognition/anxiety, and stranger fear
Attached is seen when infants begin to bond with their parents.
This development is seen within the first month, but it actually begins before birth.
The process is enhanced when infants and parents are in good health, have positive feeding experiences, and receive adequate rest
Separation-individuation occurs during the first year of life as infants first distinguish themselves and their primary caregiver as separate individuals at the same time that object permanence is developing
Separation anxiety begins around 4 to 8 months of age
Infants will protest when separated from parents, which can cause considerable anxiety for parent.
By 11 to 12 month, infants are able to anticipate the mother’s imminent departure by watching the behavior
Stranger fear becomes evident between 6 and 8 months of age, when infants have the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar people
Reactive attachment disorder results from maladaptive or absent attachment between the infant and primary caregiver and continues through childhood and adulthood
Attachment: 6 months, the infant shows preference for the mother
1 months after showing attachment to the mother the infant shows attachment to the other family members
Differential crying, smiling, and vocalization
Visual-motor orientation (looking more at the mother)
Crying when the mother leaves the room
Approaching through locomotion
Clinging (especially in the present of a stranger)
Exploring away from the mother while using her as a secure base
Severe attachment disorders are psychologic and developmental problems that develop from absent attachment
Separation anxiety: 4 to 8 months of age: infants protest when they are put in their crib and after their mother leaves the room. If they realize the mothers absence they protest
11 to 12 months of age, able to notice immanent departure by watching the mother’s behaviors
Stranger fear: 6 and 8 months of age: fear of strangers and stranger anxiety become more prominent – related to infants ability to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar person
First verbal communication: crying
Vocalization heard during crying eventually become syllables and words (“mama”)