Risk factors of coronary artery disease

  • Risk factors of coronary artery disease
    • Non-modifiable risk factors
      • Increasing age
      • Gender (more common in men than in women until 75 yr of age)
      • Ethnicity (more common in white men than in African Americans)
      • Family history of heart disease
      • Genetic predisposition
    • Major modifiable risk factors
      • Elevated serum lipids
        • Cholesterol >200 mg/dL (5.2 mmol/L)
        • Triglycerides >150 mg/dL (3.7 mmol/L)
        • High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
        • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
          • Reduce total fat intake.
          • Reduce animal (saturated) fat intake.
          • Take prescribed drugs for lipid reduction.
          • Adjust total caloric intake to achieve and maintain ideal body weight.
          • Engage in daily physical activity.
          • Increase amount of complex carbohydrates, fiber, and vegetable proteins in diet.
      • Hypertension
          • Monitor home-based BP and obtain regular checkups.
          • Take prescribed drugs for BP control.
          • Reduce salt intake.
          • Stop tobacco use. Avoid exposure to environmental tobacco (secondhand) smoke.
          • Control or reduce weight.
          • Perform physical activity daily.
      • Physical Inactivity
          • Develop and maintain at least 30 min of moderate physical activity daily (minimum 5 days a week).
          • Increase activities to a fitness level.
      • Obesity: Waist circumference ≥102 cm (≥40 in) in men and ≥88 cm (≥35 in) in women
          • Change eating patterns and habits.
          • Reduce caloric intake to achieve body mass index of 18.5–24.9 kg/m2.
          • Increase physical activity to increase caloric expenditure.
          • Avoid fad and crash diets, which are not effective over time.
          • Avoid large, heavy meals. Consider smaller, more frequent meals.
      • Diabetes
          • Follow the recommended diet.
          • Control or reduce weight.
          • Take prescribed drugs for diabetes.
          • Monitor blood glucose levels regularly.
      • Psychologic state
          • Increase awareness of behaviors that are harmful to health.
          • Alter patterns that add to stress (e.g., get up 30 min earlier so that breakfast is not eaten on way to work).
          • Set realistic goals for self.
          • Reassess priorities in light of identified risk factors.
          • Learn effective stress management strategies
          • Seek professional help if feeling depressed, angry, and anxious, etc.
          • Plan time for adequate rest and sleep
          • Contributing
            • Fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dL
            • Psychosocial risk factors (e.g., depression, hostility, anger, stress)
            • Elevated homocysteine levels