Risk factors Pneumonia

Risk factors

  • Abdominal or thoracic surgery
  • Age >65 yr.
  • Air pollution
  • Altered consciousness: alcoholism, head injury, seizures, anesthesia, drug overdose, stroke
  • Bed rest and prolonged immobility
  • Chronic diseases: chronic lung and liver disease, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease
  • Debilitating illness
  • Exposure to bats, birds, rabbits, farm animals
  • Immunosuppressive disease and/or therapy (corticosteroids, cancer chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplant)
  • Inhalation or aspiration of noxious substances
  • Intestinal and gastric feedings via nasogastric or nasointestinal tubes
  • IV drug use
  • Malnutrition
  • Recent antibiotic therapy
  • Resident of a long-term care facility
  • Smoking
  • Tracheal intubation (endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy)
  • Upper respiratory tract infection

Clinical manifestation

  • Most common
    • Cough
    • Fever, chills
    • Dyspnea, tachypnea
    • Pleuritic chest pain
    • Green, yellow, or rust-colored sputum
  • Change in mentation for older or debilitated patients
  • Nonspecific manifestations
  • Physical examination findings
    • Fine or coarse crackles
    • Bronchial breath sounds
    • Egophony
    • Increased fremitus
    • Dullness to percussion if pleural effusion present