Safety promotion and injury prevention : Birth to 4 months of age

    • Safety promotion and injury prevention
      • Birth to 4 months of age
        • Major Developmental Accomplishments
          • Exhibits involuntary reflexes (e.g., crawling reflex may propel infant forward or backward; startle reflex may cause the body to jerk)
          • May roll over
          • Has increasing eye-hand coordination and voluntary grasp reflex
        • Injury Prevention
          • Aspiration
            • Aspiration is not as great a danger to this age-group, but parents should begin practicing safeguarding early (see under 4 to 7 Months of Age).
            • Never shake baby powder directly on infant; place powder in hand and then on infant’s skin; store container closed and out of infant’s reach.
            • Hold infant for feeding; do not prop bottle.
            • Know emergency procedures for choking.
            • Use pacifier with one-piece construction and loop handle.
          • Burns
            • Install smoke detectors in home.
            • Do not microwave infant formula or breast milk because this can cause burns because of uneven warming.
            • Check bathwater temperature.
            • Do not pour hot liquids when infant is close by, such as sitting on lap.
            • Beware of cigarette ashes that may fall on infant.
            • Do not leave infant in sun for more than a few minutes; keep skin covered.
            • Wash flame-retardant clothes according to label directions.
            • Use cool-mist vaporizers.
            • Do not leave child in parked car.
            • Check surface heat of car restraint before placing child in seat.
          • Suffocation and Drowning
            • Keep all plastic bags stored out of infant’s reach; discard large plastic garment bags after tying in a knot.
            • Do not cover mattress with plastic.
            • Use firm mattress and loose blankets, with no pillows.
            • Make certain crib design follows federal regulations and mattress fits snugly—crib slats 2.375 inches (6 cm) apart.*
            • Position crib away from other furniture and away from heat radiators.
            • Do not tie pacifier on a string around infant’s neck.
            • Remove bibs at bedtime.
            • Never leave infant alone in bath.
            • Do not leave infant younger than 12 months of age alone on adult or youth mattress or “beanbag” type seats.
            • Install carbon monoxide monitor.
          • Motor Vehicles
            • Transport infant in federally approved, rear-facing car seat, preferably in back seat.
            • Do not place infant on seat (of car) or in lap.
            • Do not place child in a carriage or stroller behind a parked car.
            • Do not place infant or child in front passenger seat with an air bag.
            • Do not leave infant unattended in car, especially in environmental temperatures above 70° F.
          • Falls
            • Crib rails are fixed and firmly latched. As of 2011, only beds with fixed rails are recommended, but some older models may be in use (suggest purchasing a rail-latching mechanism for older models).
            • Never leave infant alone on a raised, unguarded surface.
            • When in doubt as to where to place child, use floor.
            • Restrain child in infant seat, and never leave child unattended while the seat is resting on a raised surface.
            • Avoid using a high chair until child can sit well with support.
          • Poisoning
            • Poisoning is not as great a danger to this age-group, but parents should begin practicing safeguards early (see under 4 to 7 Months of Age).
          • Bodily Damage
            • Keep sharp or jagged objects such as knives and broken glass out of child’s reach.