Stress and Stress management


  • The inability to cope with perceived demands or threats to one’s mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being
  • What is considered stressful varies from person to person and from one situation to another

Types of Stress

  • Many different sources of stress
    • Physiologic 
      • Pain, Excessive noise, Starvation, and Infection
    • Emotional/psychologic (Positive or negative)
      • Diagnosis of cancer, Death of spouse, Caring for disabled child, and Marital problems
  • Stressors can be physiologic or emotional/psychologic. 
  • Your perception of these stressors will determine whether they cause stress. 
  • Events or circumstances become stressful when you perceive them to be


Factors affecting response to stress

  • Internal influences
    • Age, health status, personality, previous experience with stress
  • External influences 
    • Cultural and ethnic influences, socioeconomic status, social support, timing of stressors


  • Key personal characteristics
    • Resilience
      • Resourceful, flexible, and having good problem-solving skills
    • Hardiness
      • Courage and motivation to turn potential disaster into opportunities for personal growth
    • Attitude
      • Helps prevent disease and prolong life
    • Being optimistic
      • Helps avoid illness and increases speed of recovery


  • Stress response
    • Increases
      • Cardiac output
      • Blood glucose levels
      • Oxygen consumption
      • Metabolic rate