Stroke

Stroke

  • Also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  • Occurs when there is
    • ischemia (inadequate blood low) to a part of the brain
    • hemorrhage (bleeding) into the brain
  • 5th most common cause of death in the United States
  • Leading cause of serious, long-term disability
    • About 800,000 people have a stroke each year
      • 15%-30% with permanent disability
      • Lifelong change for survivor and family

Risk factors

  • Non-modifiable
    • Age
      • Stroke risk doubles each decade after 55
    • Gender
      • More common in men; more women die
    • Ethnicity/race
      • Higher incidence in African Americans
    • Heredity/family history
  • Modifiable
    • Hypertension
    • Heart disease
    • Serum cholesterol
    • Smoking
    • Obesity
    • Sleep apnea
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • Lack of physical exercise
    • Poor diet
    • Drug and alcohol abuse

Transient ischemic attack

  • History of TIA is associated with an increased risk of stroke
  • TIA is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, but without acute infarction of brain
  • Symptoms typically last < 1 hour
  • There is no way to predict outcome
    • 1/3 do not experience another event
    • 1/3 have additional TIAs
    • 1/3 progress to stroke