The Toddler and Family: Coping with normal growth and development

    • Coping with normal growth and development
    • Coping with normal growth and development
      • Toilet training
        • Voluntary control of anal and urethral sphincters is achieved around 18-24 months
        • Child must be able to recognize the urge to let go and hold on and communicate the sensation to the parent
          • Physical Readiness
            • Voluntary control of anal and urethral sphincters, usually by 24 to 30 months of age
            • Ability to stay dry for 2 hours; decreased number of wet diapers; waking dry from nap
            • Regular bowel movements
            • Gross motor skills of sitting, walking, and squatting
            • Fine motor skills to remove clothing
          • Mental Readiness
            • Recognizing urge to defecate or urinate
            • Verbal or nonverbal communicative skills to indicate when wet or has urge to defecate or urinate
            • Cognitive skills to imitate appropriate behavior and follow directions 
            • Psychologic Readiness
            • Expressing willingness to please parent
            • Ability to sit on toilet for 5 to 8 minutes without fussing or getting off
            • Curiosity about adults’ or older sibling’s toilet habits
            • Impatience with soiled or wet diapers; desire to be changed immediately
          • Parental Readiness
            • Recognizing child’s level of readiness
            • Willingness to invest time required for toilet training
            • Absence of family stress or change such as a divorce, moving, new sibling, or imminent vacation
      • Sibling rivalry 
        • Natural jealousy and resentment of children to a new child in the family 
        • Prepare the toddler for the new baby 
        • Make sure attention is also focused on the toddler 
        • Toddler may revert back to infantile behavior
      • Temper tantrums
        • Tempers are common but should not persist
        • Tantrums occur when:
          • Toddlers are abruptly told that they must leave an activity 
          • Limit setting is inconsistent 
          • the child simply cannot get his feelings across verbally
      • Regression
        • The retreat from ones present pattern of functioning to past levels of behavior
        • Ignore regression and praise existing patterns of appropriate behavior