The Toddler and Family : Promoting optimal health during toddlerhood

    • Promoting optimal health during toddlerhood
      • Nutrition
        • Physiological anorexia- slower growth and decreased appetite
        • Parent education 
          • Toddlers refuse to eat 
          • Food fads 
          • Serve children nutritious food 
          • Toddlers should be given child-size portions 
          • Concerned about choking hazards 
          • Milk intake
        • Factors that affect Iron Absorption
          • Increase
            • Acidity (low pH)—Administer iron between meals (gastric hydrochloric acid).
            • Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)—Administer iron with juice, fruit, or multivitamin preparation.
            • Vitamin A
            • Tissue (cellular) need
            • Meat, fish, poultry
            • Cooking in cast iron pots
          • Decrease
            • Alkalinity (high pH)—Avoid any antacid preparation.
            • Phosphates—Milk is unfavorable vehicle for iron administration.
            • Phytates—Found in cereals
            • Oxalates—Found in many fruits and vegetables (plums, currants, green beans, spinach, sweet potatoes, tomatoes)
            • Tannins—Found in tea, coffee
            • Tissue (cellular) saturation
            • Malabsorptive disorders
            • Disturbances that cause diarrhea or steatorrhea
            • Infection
        • Children might establish lifetime eating habits during early childhood
        • Toddlers begin developing taste preferences and are generally picky eaters who repeatedly request their favorite foods
        • Physiologic anorexia occurs, resulting in toddlers becoming fussy eaters because of a decreased appetite
        • Toddlers should consume 24 to 28 oz of milk per day, and may switch from drinking whole milk to drinking low-fat milk after 2 years of age
        • Juice consumption should be limited to 4 to 6 oz per day
        • Trans fatty acids and saturated fats should be avoided
        • Diet should include 1 cup of fruit daily
        • Adult supervision should always be provided during snack and mealtimes
      • Sleep
        • The risk of SIDS is no longer an issue
          • Toddlers can now have pillows, soft toys, and quilts in their beds 
        • Toddlers need up to 11 to 12 hours of sleep per day and usually take at least one nap per day
        • Parent education 
          • To prevent tantrums, forewarning a child that bed or nap time is coming is helpful
          • To prevent injury, move child from a crib to a bed once they can crawl out 
          • Parent should establish bedtime routines and stick to them