Toddler : Safety promotion and injury prevention : Poisoning

Accidental poisoning
  • Explores by putting objects in mouth
  • Can open drawers, closets, boxes, and
  • most containers
  • Climbs
  • Cannot read labels
  • Does not know safe dose or amount
  • Place all potentially toxic agents, including cosmetics, cleaning products, pesticides, and medications, out of reach or in locked cabinet.
  • Caution against eating nonedible items such as plants.
  • Replace medications or poisons immediately in locked cabinet; replace child-guard caps properly.
  • Administer medications as drug, not as candy.
  • Do not store surplus toxic agents.
  • Promptly discard empty poison containers; never reuse to store food item or other poison.
  • Teach child not to play in trash containers.
  • Never remove labels from containers of toxic substances.
  • Know number of nearest poison control center (800-222-1222).
Falls
  • Able to open doors and some
  • windows
  • Goes up and down stairs
  • Depth perception unrefined
  • Use window guards; do not rely on screens to stop falls
  • Place gates at top and bottom of stairs
  • Keep doors locked or use child-proof doorknob covers at entry to stairs, high porch, or other elevated area, including laundry chute.
  • Remove unsecured or scatter rugs.
  • Apply nonskid decals in bathtub or shower.
  • Keep crib rails fully raised and mattress at lowest level.
  • Place carpeting under crib and in bathroom.
  • Keep large toys and bumper pads out of crib or play yard (child can use these as “stairs” to climb out); move child to youth bed when he or she is able to climb out of crib.
  • Avoid using wheeled walkers, especially near stairs.
  • Dress in safe clothing (soles that do not “catch” on floor, tied shoelaces, pant legs that do not touch floor).
  • Keep child restrained in vehicles; never leave unattended in shopping cart.
  • Supervise at playgrounds; select play areas with soft ground cover and safe equipment.
Choking and suffocation
  • Puts things in mouth
  • May swallow hard or nonedible
  • pieces of food
  • Avoid large, round chunks of meat such as whole hot dogs (slice lengthwise into short pieces).
  • Avoid fruit with pits, fish with bones, hard candy, chewing gum, nuts, popcorn, grapes, and marshmallows.
  • Choose large, sturdy toys without sharp edges or small removable parts.
  • Discard old refrigerators, ovens, and other appliances after removing door.
  • Install smoke and carbon monoxide alarms; change batteries every 6 months.
  • Develop a fire escape plan for the entire family and have drills.
  • Select safe toy boxes or chests without heavy, hinged lids.
  • Keep Venetian blind (or shade) cords out of child’s reach.
  • Remove drawstrings from clothing; shorten essential drawstrings to 15.24 cm (6 inches) or less.
Bodily injuries
  • Still clumsy in many skills
  • Easily distracted from tasks
  • Unaware of potential danger from
  • strangers or other people
  • Avoid giving sharp or pointed objects such as knives, scissors, or toothpicks, especially when walking or running.
  • Do not allow lollipops or similar objects in mouth when walking or running.
  • Teach safety precautions (e.g., to carry knife or scissors with pointed end away from face).
  • Store all dangerous tools, garden equipment, and firearms in locked cabinet.
  • Be alert to danger of supervised animals and household pets.
  • Use safety glass and decals on large, glassed areas such as sliding glass doors.
  • Teach child name, address, and phone number and to ask for help from appropriate people (cashier, security guard, policeman) if lost; have identification on child (sewn in clothes, inside shoe).
  • Teach stranger safety:
  • Avoid personalized clothing in public places.
  • Never go with a stranger.
  • Tell parents if anyone makes child feel uncomfortable in any way.
  • Always listen to child’s concerns regarding others’ behavior.
  • Teach child to say “no” when confronted with uncomfortable situations.